Python is one of the most popular programming languages in the world. It’s used in everything from YouTube to Instagram and is known for its elegant and easy-to-read code. This guide will show you how to access Python source code and start reading it.
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This is a micro web framework written in Python. It does not have form validation and a database abstraction layer, but it lets you use third-party libraries for common functions. And that is why it’s a microframework. Flask is designed to make creating apps easy and fast and is scalable and lightweight. It is based on the projects Werkzeug and Jinja2.
This is an open-source software library that deals with Natural Language Processing and is written in Python and Cython. While NLTK is more for teaching and research purposes, spaCy’s job is to provide software for production. Also, Thinc is spaCy’s machine learning library featuring CNN models for part-of-speech tagging, dependency parsing, and named entity recognition.
Depending on your interests and skills, you can contribute in a number of different ways. For example, if you want to contribute to CPython, you can:
- Fix code bugs
- Write unit tests for functions in the standard library
- Write documentation for functions in the standard library
But if you want to contribute in other areas, you can:
- Write documentation for the Python Developer’s Guide
- Translate documentation
- Use your front end skills to improve Python’s official site
You can also help review pull requests from other contributors. The core developers have a lot of work on their hands, so if you can help move some issues forward, then you’ll be helping Python get better faster.
Zulip is a powerful, open source group chat application that combines the immediacy of real-time chat with the productivity benefits of threaded conversations. Zulip is used by open source projects, Fortune 500 companies, large standards bodies, and others who need a real-time chat system that allows users to easily process hundreds or thousands of messages a day. With over 300 contributors merging over 500 commits a month, Zulip is also the largest and fastest growing open source group chat project.
When you start contributing to an open source project, there can be a lot of information to take in all at once.
To help you navigate it all, your first port of call should be the Python Developer’s Guide. It’s a super important resource that all contributors and core developers rely on since it covers everything from how to assess a potential contribution to how to deal will issue tracking. (If you contribute to this guide, then you’ll be able to make a big impact on what contributing to Python is like.)
Once you get down to the nuts and bolts of contributing, it’ll be useful to get familiar with a few tools:
- GitHub: Python contributors collaborate with each other through GitHub, which allows you to host code, do version control, give feedback, and more. To learn more about how to use this tool, check out Introduction to Git and GitHub for Python Developers as well as Python’s official Git Bootcamp and Cheat Sheet.
- reStructuredText: If you want to contribute documentation, then it’ll be very helpful to learn how to use this markup language. The Python Developer’s Guide has a primer on reStructuredText to help you get started. (Fun fact: reStructuredText has been around longer than Markdown!)
- Sphinx: You’ll use Sphinx to build Python’s documentation. To learn more, you can check out Mariatta Wijaya’s talk Introduction to Sphinx Docs and reStructuredText and Eric Holscher’s talk Documenting your project with Sphinx & Read the Docs.
Although you don’t need to have experience with the C programming language to contribute to Python, it can open up some new ways of contributing. Here are some resources you can check out to learn more:
- C for Python Programmers
- Your Guide to the CPython Source Code
- CPython Internals: Your Guide to the Python 3 Interpreter
To get a feel for how the interpersonal aspects of contributing to Python work, you can also check out Brett Canon’s PyCascades talk Setting Expectations for Open Source Participation. It’s about setting reasonable expectations of each other so we can make open source pleasant for everyone involved.
Mask R-CNN is for object detection and segmentation. This is an implementation of Mask R-CNN on Python 3, Keras, and TensorFlow. The model generates bounding boxes and segmentation masks for each instance of an object in the image. It’s based on Feature Pyramid Network (FPN) and a ResNet101 backbone.
If you see something in Python that you think should be improved, then you’re welcome to suggest it. But for your first contribution, it can be easier to start with an issue that has already been flagged by someone else.
If you want to contribute to the Python Developer’s Guide or Python’s official site, then you can check out the issues listed on GitHub:
If you want to contribute to CPython, which is what most people mean when they say “Python,” then you’ll need to create an account at Python’s bug tracker, which is called BPO because it’s at
rg. You can register yourself as a user by going to User → Register in the menu on the left.
The information in the default view can be a lot to take in since it shows issues raised by users as well as issues raised by core developers, which may already have been fixed. Fortunately, you can filter this list to find exactly what you’re looking for.
To filter the list, start by logging in and then go to Your Queries → Edit in the menu on the left. You’ll get a list of queries that you can leave in or leave out:
Here’s an example of what you’d see if you edited your queries to leave in only easy documentation issues:
Now that you’ve filtered your list to leave in only easy documentation issues, you’re seeing just documentation issues that are suitable for beginners.
If you’d like to work on something other than documentation, you can also try some other queries to help you find an issue that interests you:
|Query||Types of Issues|
|Easy Tasks||Issues that have been flagged as good for beginners|
|Reports Without Replies||Issues that have been reported but not discussed|
|Unread||Issues that have been reported but not read|
|Recently Created||Issues that were reported recently|
|50 Latest Issues||The top fifty issues that have had the most recent updates|
Once you’ve decided which issue you want to work on for your first contribution, it’s good to check the comments to see if:
- There’s still some ongoing discussion about whether it should be resolved and how it should be approached
- Someone else is already working on the issue
HTTPie is a command line HTTP client. Its goal is to make CLI interaction with web services as human-friendly as possible. It provides a simple http command that allows for sending arbitrary HTTP requests using a simple and natural syntax, and displays colorized output. HTTPie can be used for testing, debugging, and generally interacting with HTTP servers.
Be sure to check out Python’s official documentation about the lifecycle of a pull request. It’ll walk you through the step-by-step mechanics of submitting a pull request, give you tips on making good commits, and more.
Since most core developers are volunteers, you may not get a response right away, but there are couple things you can do to speed up the process:
- Give a clear explanation of the problem you solved and how you solved it: This will help reviewers get up to speed quickly and have the information they need to accept your pull request.
- Resolve only one issue in each pull request: If you notice another problem while you’re working on your contribution, then you can resolve it in a second pull quest.
Contributing to open source is all about collaboration, so communication is super important. To learn more, check out what Open Source Guides has to say about communicating effectively when you submit a contribution.
When you’ve submitted your first pull request, kick back and celebrate! You’ve taken your first big step on a journey that could lead to some cool places.
Tornado is a Python web framework and asynchronous networking library, originally developed at FriendFeed. By using non-blocking network I/O, Tornado can scale to tens of thousands of open connections, making it ideal for long polling, WebSockets, and other applications that require a long-lived connection to each user.
Python is a general-purpose interpreted, interactive, object-oriented, and high-level programming language. It was created by Guido van Rossum during 1985- 1990. Like Perl, Python source code is also available under the GNU General Public License (GPL). This tells us how we can use Python on a variety of platforms.